The Book of Deuteronomy
This book contains the message of Moses parting the return which he review and renew the covenant of God with Israel for the sake of Israel’s new army. They have now reached the end of the wanderings in the wilderness and ready entry into Canaan. Most of this generation do not remember the first Passover, crossing the Red Sea, or the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai.
They require a vibrant retelling of the covenant, the law, and the faithfulness of God, and a new statement of the various blessings that accompany obedience and curses that accompany disobedience.Unlike the book of Numbers that records the odyssey “force output” rebellious Israelites for 40 years
(Numbers 32:13), the book of Deuteronomy includes a short period of about a month in one place in the plains of Moab east of Jericho and the Jordan River.
Deuteronomy was written by Moses (Deut 31:9,24-26; bd. Num 4:44-46; Num 29:1) and passed on to Israel as a covenant document to be read entirely in front of the whole nation every seven years (Deut. 31:10-13). Moses may finish writing this book before his death around 1405 BC. That Moses wrote the book is confirmed by:
1. Samaritan Pentateuch and Jewish,
2. The authors of the OT (eg Jos 1:7; 1 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 14:6; Ezr 3:2; Neh 1:8-9; Dan 9:11),
3. Jesus (Matthew 19:7-9, John 5:45-47) and the other NT writers (eg, Acts 3:22-23; Rom 10:19),
4. Christian scholars of old,
5. Conservative scholars today, and
6. Evidence in the book of Deuteronomy itself (eg, composition similarities with other forms of the written agreement in the 15th century BC). The story of the death of Moses (chapter 34; Deut 34:1-12) have been added as soon as it happened (very likely by Joshua) as a worthy tribute to Moses, the servant of God.
Before handing over the leadership to Joshua, to the conquest of Canaan, Moses’ intention at first was to advise and direct the forces of the new Israel:
1. Mighty deeds and the promises of God,
2. Their obligations related to an agreement to faith and obedience, and
3. They give themselves the need to fear God, to live in His will, and to love and honor Him with all your heart, soul, and strength.
As renewal of the agreement document, Deuteronomy prepared in accordance with the agreement between the two kingdoms when it:
1. introduction (Deuteronomy 1:1-5);
2. introduction with the history (Deuteronomy 1:6-4:43);
3. The main terms (Deuteronomy 4:44-26:19);
4. various curses and blessings (Deuteronomy 27:1-30:20), and
5. various provisions regarding the sustainability of the covenant (Deuteronomy 31:1-33:39).
With all its seriousness, Moses reviewing and renewing the covenant of God with Israel mainly through three vibrant mandate.
(1) Mandate Moses the first discuss the history and failure of Israel from Mount Sinai and challenging the new generation to fear Allah and obey Him (Deuteronomy 1:6-4:43).
(2) a second Moses Commission to review and apply the law of treaties dealing with many issues such as implementing the Sabbath, worship, the poor, the annual feast, inheritance, property rights to property, sexual depravity, the treatment of slaves, and the implementation of judicial(Deuteronomy 4:44-26:19).
(3) The third Mandate Moses prophesied about the blessings and curses that will befall Israel according to their obedience or disobedience (Deuteronomy 27:1-30:20). The rest of the chapters include the appointment of his successor Joshua by Moses as well as testimony regarding the death of Moses (Deuteronomy 31:1-34:12).
Four characteristics mark the book of Deuteronomy:
1. Deuteronomy provides for a new Israeli forces (which is about to enter Canaan) foundation and motivation needed to inherit the promised land with a focus on God’s character and His covenant with Israel.
2. Deuteronomy is the “Second Book of the Law” because in it Moses, the leader of Israel’s 120-year-old, restate and summarize (in the form of a sermon) God’s word contained in the previous four books.
3. Deuteronomy is the “Book of Memories.” Advice is typical of Deuteronomy, “Remember … and do not forget.” Rather than bring up the search for “new truth,” Deuteronomy advising Israel to defend and obey the truth that has been revealed in the Word of God before hisabsolute and unchanging.
4. Important premise in this book is the formulation of “faith-obedience-added.” Israel is called to trust God with all your soul and obey His commandments diligently. Faith-plus-compliance will enable them to inherit the promises of God’s full blessing; lack of faith and obedience, on the other hand, will lead to failure and punishment.
Fulfillment in the New Testament
When Jesus was tempted by Satan, He responded by quoting verses from Deuteronomy (Matt 4:4,7,10 quoting Deuteronomy 8:3; Deut 6:16; Deut 6:13). When Jesus was asked about where most of the law, he replied from Deuteronomy (Matthew 22:37; bd. Deuteronomy 6:5). New Testament books cite or refer to Deuteronomy almost 100 times. A clear Messianic prophecy (Deut 18:15-19) is mentioned twice in the Acts of the Apostles (Deut 3:22-23; Deut 7:37). Deuteronomy spiritual nature is the foundation of the New Testament revelation.