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The Book of Numbers


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Author: Moses
Theme: Wandering in the Wilderness
Date of Writing: 1405 BC +

Background
The title of this book first appeared in manuscript versions of Greek and Latin and the census was taken of the two Israeli men are recorded in the book (chapters 1, 26; Num Num 1:1-54 and 26:1-65). However, most of this book recounts the experiences of Israel during the wandering “in the wilderness”; therefore in the Hebrew Old Testament book of the Bible is known as “In the Wilderness.”

Chronologically, Numbers is a history of connections that are recorded in the book of Exodus. Having lived in Mount Sinai for about a year – when the covenant God established with Israel, gave the law and the pattern of the tabernacle to Moses, as well as provide guidance on the content of the book of Leviticus – Israel getting ready to move on them to the land that God promised to them as the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. However, a moment before leaving Mount Sinai, God told Moses to make a census to count all the Israelite men to battle (Num 1:2-3).
Nineteen days later, the nation was left short journey to Kadesh (Num 10:11).
Numbers noted serious rebellion and punishment of Israel at Kadesh in the wilderness for 40 years (Numbers 32:13), so God brought a new generation of Israel to the plains of Moab, which is located across the Jordan from Jericho and the promised land.

History considers that it was written by Moses.

1. This was stated by the Jewish and Samaritan Pentateuch,

2. Jewish tradition,

3. by Jesus and the NT writers,

4. ancient Christian writers,

5. modern conservative scholars and

6. evidence in the book itself (eg Num 33:1-2).

Moses apparently recorded in his diary during wanderings in the wilderness and then compile the book of Numbers in the form of a narrative of his death (around 1405 BC).Moses habit to call himself the third person pronoun is usually done in ancient writings, and because it does not undermine his credibility as writing.

Destination
Numbers written to narrate why Israel does not directly enter the promised land after leaving Mount Sinai. Numbers describes God demands faith of his people, his reply and the punishment for rebellion, and how sustainable his intention was finally realized.

Survey
Numbers primary mandate is clear: the people of God go forward just by believing in Him and His promises and obey His Word. Even though through the desert need for a certain time, not God’s original intent that the test be extended so that the wilderness generation of Israel to live and die there. However, a short drive from Mount Sinai to
Kadesh be suffering and punishment for 40 years because of their unbelief.

Throughout most of the book of Numbers, “Exodus force” Israel was not faithful, rebellious, and ungrateful for the miracles and providence of God. People began to grumble shortly after leaving Mount Sinai (chapter 11; Num 11:1-35); Miriam and Aaron against Moses (chapter 12; Num 12:1-16); Israel as a whole rebel with a stubborn unbelief in Kadesh and refused entry into Canaan (chapters 14; Num 14:1-45); Korah and many
Levites rebelled against Moses (chapter 16; Num 16:1-50), as was urged to lose patience by the people who defied it, finally Moses sinned with vent his irritation (chapter 20; Num 20:1-29), and Israel worshiped Baal (Article 25; Num 25:1-18).
Israel everyone aged 20 years and over in Kadesh (except Joshua and Caleb) died in the wilderness. Finally a new generation of Israel to the eastern boundary of the land transfer agreement (Article 26-36; Numbers 26:1-36:13).

Typical characteristics
Numbers mark the six main characteristics.

1. Numbers is the “Book of Wandering in the Wilderness,” which states clearly why Israel did not immediately occupy the promised land after leaving Mount Sinai, but instead had to wander aimlessly for 40 years.

2. Numbers is the “Book of Complaints,” and many times noted complaints dissatisfaction and bitter complaints against the God of Israel and His treatment towards them.

3. This book shows the principle that without faith, it is impossible to pleasing to God (cf. Heb 11:6). Throughout this book we can see that God’s people move forward only because of his trust with unshakable faith, believing His promises and lean
Him as the source of life and hope.

4. Numbers with clearly stated the principle that if one forces fail, God will raise up another generation to meet His promises and His mission.

5. Census before Kadesh (chapters 1-4; Num 1:1-4:49) and census then in the plains of Moab before entering Canaan (Article 26; Num 26:1-65) states that no force is not adequate from Israeli soldiers who made them can not enter Canaan at Kadesh but their lack of faith and obedience.

6. Numbers is the “Book of Discipline Divine,” which suggests that God does discipline and punish his own people as they continue to complain and do not believe (cf. chapters 13-14; Numbers 13:1-14:45).

Fulfillment in the New Testament
Complaints and distrust of Israel is mentioned as a warning to believers under the new covenant (1 Cor 10:5-11, Hebrews 3:16-4:6). Great sin of Balaam (chapters 22-24; Num 22:1-24:25) and the rebellion of Korah (article 16; Num 16:1-50) is also mentioned (2 Pet 2:15-16; Jude 1:11; Rev. 2: 14 *). Jesus refers to the brazen serpent (Numbers 21:7-9) as an illustration of his self-appointed so that those who believe in Him will not perish but have eternal life (John 3:14-16); also Christ as compared with stones reef where the children of Israel drink of water in the wilderness (1 Cor 10:4) and with the heavenly manna that they eat (Jn 6:31-33).

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